Fermentative hydrogen production from fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) through Dry Fermentation Technology (DFT) was studied through three independent experiments in order to find out the effect of particle size and autoclaving pretreatment on bio-hydrogen production from FVWs and as follows: (1) autoclaved FVWs with sizes < 5 cm (experiment I); (2) raw FVWs with sizes < 5 cm (experiment II) and (3) autoclaved FVWs with sizes > 5 cm (experiment III). The assay with autoclaved waste yielded a higher percentage of hydrogen in the headspace of the dry fermenter reaching a maximum value of 44% in experiment I. However, the maximum hydrogen production was obtained in experiment III with 14573 NmL at a yield of 23.53 NmL H-2/gVS. Profiling of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that the most prominent species were the genera Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus. (C) 2019 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.