ENERGY SOURCES, cilt.26, ss.551-561, 2004
Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Turkey lays in a sunny belt between 36degrees and 42degrees N latitudes and is geographically well situated with respect to solar energy potential. The objective of the present study is to investigate many aspects of solar energy applications in Turkey, giving the brief historical development and Turkey's solar energy potential and consumption. The following applications were taken into consideration: solar water heating, steam generation, solar cooker, solar drying, solar houses, and photovoltaics (PVs). In the early 1960s, solar energy was realized as an alternative energy in Turkey, while in the mid-1970s, solar thermal utilization technologies began gaining the high attention of universities, the government and, the industry, and have been developed at an increasing speed. Residential and industrial consumption of solar energy in Turkey started in 1986 and 1988, respectively. Solar energy use accounted for 129 kilo tons of oil equivalent (ktoe) in 2000 and is projected to be 431 ktoe and 828 ktoe in 2010 and 2020, respectively. Among all the above solar thermal utilization methods, the solar water heating has been, and will still have, the greatest emphasis in Turkey, reaching a total annual production capacity of 1,000,000 m 2 . Recently, the number of the PV installations has significantly increased and Turkey's total PV installed capacity is expected to be 3 MWp in 2010.