Objectives: Children are at greater risk than adults to the effects of inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) especially in their homes. The aim of this study was to assess parents' knowledge regarding the risks of ETS to the health of their children and the barriers to reducing children's ETS exposure. Methods: Qualitative research was performed for 50 households in which children were to exposed ETS were selected randomly from the questionnaire respondents for home-based interview. We conducted a total of 53 home-based interviews and collected information from parents regarding their knowledge of ETS effects, smoking behavior at home, barriers to quitting smoking or reducing ETS exposure, social attitudes toward parents who ban smoking, and the impact of the smoke-free legislation. Results: Passive smoking was not a well recognized term but parents recognized that it causes harmful health effects. Some parents reported that their health care professionals did not inform them about the dangers of ETS. Parents restricted smoking in their homes, with a range of spatial restrictions which were frequently modified by family relation factors, the desire to be seen to act in socially and morally acceptable ways. The meaning of hospitality as social habits and traditions were important underlying factors. Conclusion: Knowledge levels, relationships with family and friends and the social and cultural context in which families live play important roles in the management of smoke exposure in Turkish homes. Despite these factors, awareness of the risks of ETS and smoke free legislation can provide opportunities to support people attain smoke-free homes.