Development of 3D hollow woven fabrics with superior mechanical properties by using nitinol and steel wire core hybrid yarns

Yılmaz E. , Altaş S.

Journal Of Industrial Textiles, cilt.0, ss.1-38, 2020 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)

  • Cilt numarası: 0 Konu: 0
  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1177/1528083720968833
  • Dergi Adı: Journal Of Industrial Textiles
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1-38


In this study, nitinol and steel wire core hybrid yarns were produced from wires having two different diameters and used as warp yarns to weave 3D woven fabrics in two different fabric constructions. The steel bars with two different diameters were placed into the gaps between fabric layers to create a hollow form after fabric production. The fabrics produced with cold-worked nitinol wire were exposed to heat treatments at high temperatures to provide them shape memory property according to data obtained from DSC analysis. Conventional textile fibers are not durable to these temperatures; for this reason, carbon fiber was used both as sheath material of hybrid yarns and additionally as warp and weft carbon fiber yarns. All yarn and fabric tests were carried out simultaneously to evaluate the mechanical properties of nitinol and steel wire core hybrid yarns, and wire-reinforced fabrics. Tensile tests were applied to all wire and hybrid yarn samples, DSC and DMA analyses were conducted for only heat-treated nitinol wires. Low-velocity impact, tensile and pull-out tests were applied to fabric samples. Reference fabrics with no wire were produced and evaluated by comparing with wire-reinforced samples to provide a point of comparison to the data from the mechanical properties of wire-reinforced 3D fabrics. The study’s results were analyzed with regression analysis using the backward method, and the parameters such as wire type, wire diameter, and fabric gap width for optimum fabric production were determined. Data obtained from all mechanical tests demonstrate that fabric samples with steel wire, thinner wire, and narrow gaps have better results than others. The effect of wire thickness was also found the same for the nitinol wire. DMA analyses show that the thinner nitinol wire is better than, the thicker one. Finally, an innovative technique has been developed in this study to weave carbon fiber on a conventional automatic sample loom without fiber breakage by twisting PVA yarn around the wire core hybrid and twisted carbon fiber yarns.