Protected cultivation has rapidly expanded in many regions all over the world, particularly in those with mild winter climatic conditions. In this context, the greenhouse industry is continually developing new strategies and technologies to solve specific cultivation limitations, to reduce any related environmental impact and to adjust to new market requirements. It is for this reason that it is necessary to update the scientific knowledge of this industry. The characteristics of greenhouse production related to new developments in structures and climate control, crops, cultivation techniques, water and nutrient management and environmental issues, including life cycle assessment and integrated pest management, are the objective of this study. Overall, the main results of this review demonstrate that a great effort of innovation and research has been carried out by industry and researchers in order to cut production costs and to reduce the environmental impact of the most advanced greenhouse technologies while satisfying the requirements of consumers.