Background: The aim of the paper was to examine knowledge about cervical cancer and in relation to Papanicolaou (Pap) testing among Turkish women. Methods: This cross-sectional study research was carried out at Ege University Faculty of Medicine Hospital's Obstetric and Gynecology Outpatient Clinic between March 1st, and May 30th, 2008 with 92 volunteer women who were sexually active and aged 25 to 61. Data was collected through survey forms by interviews conducted by researchers. The form consisted of 30 questions and three parts. Results: Of the women who participated in the research, 33.7 % were aged 42-49 and 44.6 % were primary school graduates. It was determined that 53.3 % of the women had long experience of living in a province and big city and that 82.6 % had middle income. Approximately two-thirds (68.5%) had received a Pap test. The knowledge of the women within the scope of the research concerning cervical cancer risk factors (having a sexually transmitted disease, giving birth to many children, smoking, having sexual activity with a man who has had partners with a cervical cancer and having sexual intercourse at an early age) was found to be related with their condition of having pap testing. Conclusion: The women's condition of having pap testing is influenced by their age group, having a history of cancer in their family and having knowledge of cervical cancer in advance (p < 0.01). This research once again demonstrated that having knowledge is influential on the habit of having pap testing. Taking this conclusion into consideration, it is crucial that information services aimed at the whole society, specifically women, should become widespread with the participation of health workers.