Accelerated atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness are the two leading causes of increased cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Dysfunctional thyroid hormone metabolism has been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. Changes in cardiac contractility and output, myocardial oxygen demand, systemic and peripheral vascular resistance, blood pressure and lipid profile, increased inflammatory burden and endothelial dysfunction may be responsible for thyroid hormone-related cardiovascular disease. This article focuses on the mechanistic insights of this association and provides a concise review of the current literature. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.