The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pressure-controlled ventilation-volume guaranteed (PCV-VG) and volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) mode on oxygenation, respiratory parameters, and complications in patients with one-lung ventilation (OLV) that underwent lobectomies. A prospective randomized-controlled study was conducted from July 2016 to February 2017. All participants underwent one-lung ventilation and lobectomies. Eighty patients were randomly divided into two groups, group 1 (PCV-VG) and group 2 (VCV). Data including demographic characteristics of the patients, intraoperative mechanical ventilation parameters, intraoperative and postoperative oxygenation parameters, and complications were recorded. Two ventilation modes were compared. The mean age of all patients, of whom 70% (n=56) were male, was 56.5 +/- 14.9 (range: 20 to 75) years. PaO2 values were significantly higher only in PCV-VG modes with two-lung ventilation (P=0.033). However, remaining values including PH, PaCO2, PaO2, PaO2/FiO(2), and lactate were similar (P>0.05). Most patients with a significant increase in airway pressure (Plato pressure >35 cm H2O) were in the VCV mechanical ventilation mode. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was used to confirm tube location (group 1: One patient vs group 2: Ten patients, P=0.007). There were no significant differences in postoperative complication rates between the groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, the use to PCV-VG ventilation mode in one-lung ventilation resulted in a significant decrease in peak airway pressure. However, it did not increase intra-and postoperative oxygenation or reduce complications.