Electrical analysis of a hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen/fuel cell energy system in Denizli, Turkey

Cetin E., Yilanci A. , Oner Y., ÇOLAK M., Kasikci I., Ozturk H. K.

ENERGY AND BUILDINGS, vol.41, no.9, pp.975-981, 2009 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 41 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2009.04.004
  • Title of Journal : ENERGY AND BUILDINGS
  • Page Numbers: pp.975-981
  • Keywords: Solar energy, Hydrogen, Fuel cells, Electricity, Power quality


In recent years, hybrid photovoltaic-hydrogen/fuel cell energy systems have been popular as energy production systems that are clean, environmental-friendly, modular, and independent from fossil fuels. In February 2007, a clean energy research facility consisting of a 5 kWp photovoltaic system and a 2.4 kWp hydrogen-fuel cell system was built to investigate these energy production technologies at Pamukkale University in Denizli, Turkey. In this hybrid energy system, electricity is generated by photovoltaic panels. Generated electrical energy is stored chemically in batteries and metal hydride hydrogen canisters. Hydrogen electrolyzed from water is transformed to DC electrical energy by two fuel cells in the case of its necessity. DC electricity produced by photovoltaic panels and fuel cells is converted to AC by two inverters for the requirements of the building. In this study, an electrical energy analysis of the building, in terms of energy efficiency, harmonics, voltage changes, voltage and current sags, voltage and current swells, transients, power outage, frequency changes etc., is performed to evaluate the power quality of the hybrid energy system. In addition, some measurements such as insulation resistance, loop impedance, line impedance, grounding resistance, and specific resistance of the ground are measured to obtain the electrical characteristics of the system. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.