Chitosan-ferrocene (CHIT-Fc) hybrid was synthesized through covalent modification and its electrochemical properties in immobilized form were studied by using cyclic voltammetry. The hybrid film exhibited reversible electrochemistry with a formal potential of +0.35V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH 5.5. The Fc in CHIT matrix retained its electrocatalytic activity and did not diffuse from the matrix. This redox-active hybrid was further employed as a support for immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) and whole cells of Gluconobacter oxydans using glutaraldehyde on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The experimental conditions were optimized and the analytical characteristics of enzyme and microbial biosensors were evaluated for glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Under optimized conditions, both enzyme and microbial biosensors exhibited wide linear ranges for glucose from 2.0 to 16.0 mM and from 1.5 to 25.0 mM, respectively. Moreover, the biosensors have the advantages of relatively fast response times, good reproducibility and stability in FI mode. It was demonstrated that CHIT-Fc provides a biocompatible microenvironment for both bioctalysts and an electron transfer pathway. Additionally, integration of the enzyme and microbial biosensors into the FIA system has several advantages including capability of automation and high throughput at low cost. This promising redox hybrid can be utilized as an immobilization matrix for biomolecules in biosensor systems. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.