Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Turkish and Kuwaiti Teacher-Student Relationship Questionnaire in Physical Education (TSRQ- PE Teacher Version): Testing for Measurement Invariance

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Ada E. N. , Ahmad H., Uzun N. B. , Jowett S., Kazak Z.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.13, no.3, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su13031387
  • Title of Journal : SUSTAINABILITY


Background: Within the 3Cs (closeness, commitment, and complementarity) theoretical framework of the quality of two-person relationships, a coach-athlete relationship quality questionnaire (CART-Q) was developed and validated to assess the nature of the coach-athlete relationship. In this study, a modified version of the CART-Q for physical education (PE) was adapted to assess the teacher-student relationship quality in the PE context in Turkey and Kuwait. The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the teacher-student relationship quality questionnaire (TSRQ-PE) within a sample of Turkish and Kuwaiti physical education teachers. Methods: Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) was used to test the measurement of cultural invariance between these two groups. A total of 175 teachers from Turkey (n = 73) and Kuwait (n = 102) completed the TPRQ-PE. Results: MGCFA supported the factorial validity of the TPRQ-PE in a three first-order factor model across the two countries. Overall, these results add evidence to the psychometric properties of the TPRQ-PE and suggest that this instrument can be applied to measure the quality of the teacher-student relationship within Turkey and Kuwait, although caution may be required when applied to drawing comparisons between these two counties. Conclusions: The results of the present study could help physical educators and researchers in this field to understand the reasons and methods that lead to a quality teacher-student relationship.