In the Mugla area, southwestern Turkey, where the earliest known mammalian fauna is of late Astaracian age, a new late Orleanian/early Astaracian mammalian fauna is recognised in Kultak (Milas-Mugla). The fauna occurs at the top of a marine to continental succession known to be Aquitanian and Burdigalian in age, on the basis of marine faunal evidence. The fauna includes Anchitherium aurelianense hippoides (LARTET, 1851), Ancylotherium (Metaschizotherium) fraasi (KOENIGSWALD, 1932), Tethytragus koehlerae AZANZA & MORALES, 1994 and Gomphotherium sp. These genera are known in Europe. Anchitherium and Tethytragus are common constituents of the Middle Miocene faunas of Turkey. Ancylotherium (Metaschizotherium), which is known in central Europe, is the first record in Turkey. (C) 2001 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.