Calcium-rich Transient SN 2019ehk in a Star-forming Environment: Yet Another Candidate for a Precursor of a Double Neutron-star Binary


Nakaoka T., Maeda K., Yamanaka M., Tanaka M., Kawabata M., Moriya T. J. , ...More

ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL, vol.912, no.1, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 912 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3847/1538-4357/abe765
  • Title of Journal : ASTROPHYSICAL JOURNAL

Abstract

We present optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2019ehk, which was initially reported as a Type Ib supernova (SN). We show that it evolved to a Ca-rich transient according to its spectral properties and evolution in late phases. However, it shows a few properties distinct from those of the canonical Ca-rich transients: a short-duration first peak in the light curve, high peak luminosity, and association with a star-forming environment. Indeed, some of these features are shared with iPTF14gqr and iPTF16hgs, which are candidates for a special class of core-collapse SNe: the so-called ultra-stripped envelope SNe, i.e., a relatively low-mass He (or C+O) star explosion in a binary as a precursor of short-period double neutron star (NS) binaries. The estimated ejecta mass (0.4M (circle dot)) and explosion energy (1.7 x 10(50) erg) are consistent with this scenario. The analysis of the first peak suggests the existence of dense circumstellar material in the vicinity of the progenitor, implying a CCSN origin. Based on this analysis, we suggest SN 2019ehk is another candidate for a low-mass He star explosion. It might create a double NS binary, but with a wide separation. These candidates for low-mass stripped envelope SNe, including ultra-stripped envelope SN candidates, seem to form a subpopulation among Ca-rich transients, associated with young population. We propose that the key to distinguishing this population is the early first peak in their light curves.