Objective: To evaluate predictive clinical and histopathological risk factors for bladder cancer recurrence in patients who underwent nephroureterectomy for primary upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Subjects and Methods: Data of 111 patients, who were diagnosed with upper urinary tract TCC and underwent nephroureterectomy were reviewed A total of 65 patients were included in the study, after excluding 34 patients. Results: Bladder cancer recurrence developed in 20 (30.7%) of the 65 patients under evaluation. The recurrence-free survival rates in the 1st, 3rd, and 5th years were 78.4%, 70.7% and 69.2%, respectively. Lymphovascular invasion and a positive surgical margin were defined as risk factors for bladder cancer recurrence. In addition, patients with multiple tumors and low stage and grade pathology had a high rate of bladder cancer recurrence, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: After nephroureterectomy, a careful follow-up is required in terms of bladder tumor recurrence especially in patients with a positive surgical margin, lymphovascular invasion, low-grade tumors, or multifocal tumors.