Although central venous catheters (CVCs) have become an integral element of the care of patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the associated complications can lead to treatment delays and negatively affect the child and family's quality of life. The aim of this study was to identify the types, rate of, and risk factors for the complications relating to CVCs used in children undergoing HSCT in Turkey. One hundred children were followed prospectively to track catheter-related complications in the transplantation unit. Overall, 186 complications were documented. The most frequent complications were catheter-related infections and malfunctions. Children who had nonhematological disease had a higher rate of complications than those with hematological disease. HSCT nurses should follow and apply evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to support the management of catheters. Nurse staffing ratios and workload may be an issue in developing countries. The authors believe that proper maintenance of CVCs contributes to the reduction of catheter-related complications despite these issues and that problems can be overcome by hiring experienced staff, appropriate nursing education, and by organizing and improving home care programs for HSCT patients.