Lysozyme from egg white was modified by covalent attachment of an oleyl group to the free amino groups of lysozyme. The aim of the chemical modification was to develop an effective antimicrobial lysozyme derivative against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Lysozyme with various degrees of modification was obtained by changing oleoyl chloride/lysozyme mass ratio. Lysozyme derivatives evidently exhibited an antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli (ATCC 29998). The modification slightly changed the antimicrobial effect of lysozyme derivative against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 121002). Since there was a positive correlation between the modification degree and the antimicrobial effect against E. coli, it was concluded that the change in antimicrobial behavior was due to an increase in hydrophobicity of the enzyme molecule enabling it to penetrate through the bacterial membrane of E. coli. It was also shown that oleoyl chloride with an MIC value of 10mg/mL was effective against both E. coli and S. aureus.