Contemporary Issues in Business, Economics and Finance Vol: 104, Simon Grima,Ercan Özen,Hakan Boz, Editör, Emerald Ink Publishing, London, ss.203-215, 2020
Introduction – In recent years, there has been a growing interest in innovation,
not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. However, there
has been limited literature for the developing countries.
Purpose – The literature on national innovation systems (NIS) mainly consists
of case studies or qualitative researches aiming to explain the patterns of innovation,
while the quantitative analysis are limited in explaining the innovation
capability and efficiency of innovation. This study is unique in a sense that
it compares the innovation efficiencies of the EECA countries. This chapter
aims to measure the efficiency of NIS via data envelopment analysis (DEA)
Methodology – DEA is used to consider a sample of 18 Eastern European
and Central Asian (EECA) countries and Turkey. One of the main issues
is to determine the input and output variables because the available data
for some of these countries were limited. Therefore, research and development
expenditure (% of GDP), government expenditure on education, total
(% of GDP), imports of goods and services (% of GDP) and foreign direct
investment, net inflows (% of GDP) were determined as input variables.
Output variables were as follows; patent applications both residents and
non-residents, high-technology exports (% of manufactured exports) and
scientific and technical journal articles.
Findings – Based on the key findings it can be noted that Kazakhstan, Turkey,
Latvia and Uzbekistan are more efficient in innovation performance compared
to other EECA countries. Throughout the results of the DEA, these countries
may develop new policies about their innovation systems to reach out the higher