An Assessment of Innovation Efficiency in EECA CountriesUsing the DEA Method

Yeşilay R. B. , Halaç U.

Contemporary Issues in Business, Economics and Finance Vol: 104, Simon Grima,Ercan Özen,Hakan Boz, Editör, Emerald Ink Publishing, London, ss.203-215, 2020

  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Yayınevi: Emerald Ink Publishing
  • Basıldığı Şehir: London
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.203-215
  • Editörler: Simon Grima,Ercan Özen,Hakan Boz, Editör


Introduction – In recent years, there has been a growing interest in innovation,

not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. However, there

has been limited literature for the developing countries.

Purpose – The literature on national innovation systems (NIS) mainly consists

of case studies or qualitative researches aiming to explain the patterns of innovation,

while the quantitative analysis are limited in explaining the innovation

capability and efficiency of innovation. This study is unique in a sense that

it compares the innovation efficiencies of the EECA countries. This chapter

aims to measure the efficiency of NIS via data envelopment analysis (DEA)


Methodology – DEA is used to consider a sample of 18 Eastern European

and Central Asian (EECA) countries and Turkey. One of the main issues

is to determine the input and output variables because the available data

for some of these countries were limited. Therefore, research and development

expenditure (% of GDP), government expenditure on education, total

(% of GDP), imports of goods and services (% of GDP) and foreign direct

investment, net inflows (% of GDP) were determined as input variables.

Output variables were as follows; patent applications both residents and

non-residents, high-technology exports (% of manufactured exports) and

scientific and technical journal articles.

Findings – Based on the key findings it can be noted that Kazakhstan, Turkey,

Latvia and Uzbekistan are more efficient in innovation performance compared

to other EECA countries. Throughout the results of the DEA, these countries

may develop new policies about their innovation systems to reach out the higher