Background and aims: Results of studies using lamivudine and interferon combination in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B are not consistent or conclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interferon plus lamivudine use versus single lamivudine in anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis B. Methods: Eighty patients were treated with either lamivudine or lamivudine plus simultaneously started interferon. Patients were assigned in groups according to random allocation rule. Lamivudine was given 150 mg/day for 96 weeks in each group; interferon was administered 10 MU three times a week for 24 weeks in the combination therapy group. Results: Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization B. was achieved earlier in patients treated with lamivudine alone. At the end of treatment, there was no difference between the groups with respect to HBV DNA negativity, ALT normalization and breakthrough rate. Histological improvement was remarkable in each group, but fibrosis score and necro-inflammatory activity were much lower in lamivudine-treated patients. Conclusions: Addition of interferon to the lamivudine regimen does not increase the effectiveness of the treatment. Considering the side effects of interferon treatment, this combination seems not to be convenient for anti-HBe-positive chronic hepatitis B.