Egr1 is a multifunctional transcription factor regulating a remarkable spectrum of cellular responses from survival to apoptosis, growth to growth arrest, differentiation to transformation, senescence as well as memory and learning effects. In prostate cancer, Egr1 levels are constitutively high and closely linked to cancer development and progression. This zinc-finger protein is a short-lived, immediate early growth response gene known to be induced by a large number of extracellular stimuli such as irradiation (all wavelengths tested), hypoxia, hyperoxia, chemotherapy agents, and more. Therefore the target genes that Egr1 regulates in prostate cancer cells play an important role in generating many of the cellular responses that characterize these cells. After Egr1 binds to its binding sites on gene promoters, specificity of response is determined by whether Egr1 transcriptionally up- or downregulates the target genes. Expression microarray analyses combined with binding data promise new ways to identify stage specific cancer markers, to aid in patient risk assessment and in therapeutic choices.