Ultrasound-assisted vacuum impregnation on the fortification of fresh-cut apple with calcium and black carrot phenolics

Yilmaz F. M. , Bilek S.

ULTRASONICS SONOCHEMISTRY, vol.48, pp.509-516, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.07.007
  • Page Numbers: pp.509-516


This study evaluated the simultaneous effect of ultrasound on vacuum impregnation process to enhance infusion of calcium lactate and black carrot phenolics into ready to eat apple tissues. A vacuum - ultrasonic equipment was developed for this purpose and effects of different ultrasound powers (96-198 W) at 35 kHz and stage of ultrasound application at vacuum and restoration periods were investigated. The simultaneous application of 130 W ultrasound during vacuum impregnation did not rupture cellular integrity, but it led to increases in calcium content (13.8%), total phenolics (11.8%), total flavonoids (17.3%), total anthocyanins (24.6%) and antioxidant capacities (23.6%) of apple discs compared to non-ultrasound vacuum impregnation. In addition, total population of psychrophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were enumerated in both black carrot infused and non-infused samples and results showed that ultrasound-assisted vacuum impregnation treatment in the presence of black carrot phenolics were highly effective on inhibition of microorganisms growth in apple discs over storage period.