This research investigated the milk yield, reproductive traits and productive life of Holstein-Friesian cows born in Turkey or imported from Italy and raised on farms involved in the Turkish-ANAFI Project. A total of 2600 records for age at first calving, 4733 completed lactation records from 2080 cows, and 1130 productive life (from first calving to disposal) records from 50 farms in the provinces of Izmir, Manisa and Aydin under the Turkish-ANAFI Project were evaluated. Least squares means for age at first calving, 305-day milk yield, lactation milk yield, lactation duration, days open, days dry, and productive life were 28.2 months, 6232 kg, 6829 kg, 336.0 days, 138.0 days, 78.3 days, and 28.9 months, respectively. Corresponding least squares means for cows born in Turkey and imported from Italy were 28.8 and 27.6 months (P<0.01), 6182 and 6281 kg (P>0.05), 6761 and 6897 kg (P<0.05), 333.9 and 338.1 days (P<0.05), 132.7 and 143.4 days (P<0.01), 79.2 and 77.3 days (P>0.10), and 21.6 and 36.1 months (P<0.01), respectively. The level of milk yield of Holstein-Friesian cows in herd-book herds under the project in the Aegean Region was satisfactory. However, there were reproductive problems as shown by the length of days open. Shorter productive life of cows born in Turkey compared to cows from Italy suggested that breeders tended to cull locally born cows at a younger age but that they tended to keep imported cows in the herd for a longer period unless serious problems occurred.