The periosteum has an important role in bone regeneration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the osteogenic capacities of tibial and cranial periosteum. To achieve this, 44 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into two groups, each consisting of 22 rabbits. In group 1, periosteal flaps were prepared on the tibia of the posterior cruris of each side. In group 2, bilateral periosteal flaps were prepared on the cranial region. New bone formation was estimated quantitatively by measuring the alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels, because they are the indicators of osteoblastic activity. At weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8, biopsies were taken from five animals of each group for biochemical analyses, and at weeks 2 and 8, biopsies were taken for histologic evaluation. Higher alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin levels were evaluated in group 1, and more bone formation was observed in group 1. The results showed that osteogenic capacity is higher in tibial periosteum than cranial periosteum.