Unlike in subjects with normal renal function, the relationship between hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients is still being debated. In order to clarify this issue, we performed 44-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) during the interdialytic period in a group of 164 hypertensive patients, the blood pressure (BP) control based on conventional antihypertensive strategy previously, on chronic hemodialysis treatment in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. These results were then compared with their echocardiographic data. This is a cross-sectional analysis. The mean ABPM during 44 hours was close to the manually measured predialysis value, but there was a gradual increase in the ABPM values in the interdialytic period. When divided into a group with mild or no left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (45 patients) and severe LVH (119 patients), the latter had significantly higher BP levels in all separate periods, while the difference in predialysis BP was not significant. Patients with severe LVH had larger left atrium and left ventricular diameters, and consumed more antihypertensive drugs. Systolic BP during the night before dialysis showed the strongest relation to LVH, but interdialytic weight gain was also independently related to LVH. Yet, 56% of the patients with systolic BP < 135 had severe LVH. There is not only an association between BP and presence of LVH, but it is shown that volume expansion is also an important independent determinant of LVH. This may explain the difficulty in identifying hypertension as a cardiac risk factor in these patients.