Objectives: The aim of this study was to systematically review the Turkish literature of acute adult purulent meningitis. Materials and Methods: The published series of three national databases and two international databases were searched to perform the review. In addition to the databases, abstracts of congresses held between 1994 and 2003 by the Turkish Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Association, Turkish Microbiology Association, and the Antibiotic and Chemotherapy Association were searched for reports about acute purulent meningitis. Results: Data for 2,408 patients with a diagnosis of acute purulent meningitis were obtained from 30 reports. In terms of clinical findings, 1,254 of 1,570 (79.8%) had fever (> 38 degrees C), 1,408 of 1,595 (88.2%) headache, 1,403 of 1,562 (89.8%) stiffness of the neck, and 649 of 784 (82.7%) leukocytosis (> 10,000/mm(3)). Cerebrospinal fluid culture yielded a pathogen in 873 of 2,260 (38.6%) patients. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Neisseria meningitidis and Staphylococcus aureus. Overall mortality was 425 of 2,408 (17.6%). Pathogen-specific mortality was 60 of 202 (29.7%) for S. pneumoniae and 6 of 100 (6%) for N. meningitidis. Conclusion: Meningitis is a serious, life-threatening disease. More preventive measures should be sought to further decrease the mortality and morbidity related to acute purulent meningitis. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.