The First International Molecular Plant Protection Congress, Adana, Türkiye, 10 - 13 Nisan 2019, cilt.1, ss.85
Mosquitoes have one of the highest biological potentials among all living organisms worldwide. They are also important vectors of many parasites such as Plasmodium spp. causing Malaria which kills an average of 500,000 people each year worldwide. The current strategy in the control of mosquitoes is based on use of chemical insecticides and biopesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and B. sphaericus. In natural site areas that have great biodiversity, only biopesticides are allowed to be used against mosquitoes as chemicals have been commonly known to cause significant negative effects on non-targets, environment and the human health. Development of resistance against chemical insecticides by mosquitoes has been well-known for along time; however, recent studies also revealed reports for resistance against entomopathogens and their toxin products. Use of biopesticides would be helpful in decreasing the chemicals; however, it is important to understand the resistance mechanisms against Bacillus. In the current study, mode of action, formulation, and application of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and B.sphaericus against mosquitoe larvae have been reviewed. Physiological and biochemical background of resistance developed by mosquitoe larvae against these agents have been addressed as well.