In this paper, we present the results of our investigations on the neuro-arterial relations in the region of the optic canal. A thorough knowledge of the microanatomic features of the ophthalmic artery, optic canal and optic nerve is very important for surgeons approaching lesions of this area. We aimed to extend our present knowledge of the origin of the ophthalmic artery and microsurgical anatomy of the optic canal with exposure of the optic nerve. The optic canal walls and width and height of the orbital and cranial apertures, and thickness of the bony roof of the optic canal were measured on the right and left sides of 57 sphenoid bones, 102 skull bases and 58 fixed adult cadaver heads. The ophthalmic artery originated from the rostromedial circumference of the internal carotid artery in 51.8%, from the medial circumference in 26.2% and the laterobasal circumference in 22% of the specimens. The outer diameter of the ophthalmic artery at its origin was 1.81 +/- 0.36 mm on the right and 1.75 +/- 0.37 mm on the left side.