In neurologic illness, depression contributes significantly to impairments in quality of life, independent of the severity of the disease. In the evolution of neurodegenerative disorders, depression may predate neurologic signs and symptoms, and there is some evidence that depressive illness itself may be a risk factor in some demential. Data on the treatment of depression in neurologic disease are scarce, and often the treatment advice is based on the personal views of psychiatrists. In some patients, diagnosis of depression in neurologic diseases can be particularly hard because of communication difficulties and disturbances of emotional expression as a result of neurologic disorders. However, effective screening and diagnostic tools have been developed for the recognition of depression in neurologic disorders. In recent years, there have been large quantities of clinical trials that supported the critical role of the neurologist in assessing and treating depressive symptoms to the point of remission. The intention of this review was to demonstrate the importance and role of a neurologist in the diagnosis and treatment of depression in neuropsychiatric diseases.