The uranium uptake ability of silk fibroin was investigated. High ability to uptake uranium from nonsaline water containing 2.500 mg of uranium was observed with the silk fibroin tested. The uranium uptake was very rapid and was dependent on pH, uranium concentration, temperature, and retention time. Almost all uranium taken up is easily eluted with 1 mol/L CH3COONH4. This biomatrix, therefore, appears to have potential for use in a commercial process for uranium recovery from uranium-containing waste water.