P>The autoinflammatory disorders differ in severity, as well as age of onset, duration, and manifestations, but they all share some common features: recurring fever peaks, inflammation of serosal membranes, musculoskeletal involvement, varying types of skin rash, amyloidosis as a sequel of the disease. TRAPS is very rare in Turkish population and we present two unrelated Turkish children with similar clinical phenotypes and laboratory findings related with autoinflammatory disorders and with novel p. Y331X mutation in TNFRSF1A gene. Both of the patients were male and they had recurrent fever without abdominal pain and arthralgia. Full cDNA and exon-intron binding regions of TNFRSF1A, MEFV, MVK, CIAS1 genes were analysed by direct DNA sequencing methods in order to differentiate TRAPS, FMF, HIDS, CINCA/MWS/FCAS respectively. We screened ten exons of TNFRSF1A gene, and detected a heterozygous c.1080C > G nucleotide substitution in exon 10 in both of the unrelated patients, resulting p.Y360X nonsense (protein truncated) mutation. According to classical TNFRSF1A gene nomenclature and the agreement of 30th amino acid as the first one, it is accepted as p.Y331X. It was interesting to determine same mutations in fathers of two patients. In one of the cases, E148Q heterozygous mutation, which is one of the disease-causing mutations of MEFV gene, was detected. No nucleotide substitution was identified in exon and exon-intron splicing regions encoding 396 amino acid of MVK gene in both of the patients. In CIAS1 gene, two different nucleotide substitutions resulting synonymous amino acid mutation were detected in exon 3: c.[732G > A] and c.[786A > G] nucleotide substitutions and compatible p.A242A (according to c.DNA p.A244A) and p.R260R (according to c.DNA p.R262R) synonymous amino acid mutations. These nucleotide substitutions were also detected in parents and were reported to be normal variations in Turkish population. In conclusion, in Turkish patients, with dominantly inherited recurrent fever, TRAPS is a diagnosis worthy of attention and novel mutations have to be reported with phenotype associations.