Reactive oxygen species generated during the reperfusion of ischemic kidney, as well as any other tissue, cause lipid peroxidation damaging the cell membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carnitine in reperfusion injury of the kidney. Male albino rabbits were subjected to unilateral renal l-h warm ischemia followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Group I (n = 9). control group received 3 cc of isotonic saline solution and group II (n = 9): carnitine group received 100 mg/kg of carnitine. Blood samples were collected at the 15th min of reperfusion from the left renal vein selectively. Preischemic and post-reperfusion serum and renal tissue MDA levels were measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) spectrophotometric analysis. The preischemic serum and tissue MDA values (sham values) for groups I and II were statistically comparable (P > 0.01). Serum and tissue MDA levels were markedly elevated after 15 min of reperfusion in group I (P < 0.01), while the values remained in the baseline levels following reperfusion in group II (P > 0.01). In group I, the major histological differences observed in the reperfused kidneys were marked edema and congestion whereas glomerular and tubular cellular integrity were well preserved in group II. Pre-treatment with carnitine in solid organ transplantations, preschock states, surgical procedures that require temporary vascular clamping etc. may be helpful to minimize the reperfusion injury in the involved tissue, reducing morbidity and mortality.