10 th Probiotics, Prebiotics & New Foods, Nutraceuticals and Botanicals for Nutrition & Human and Microbiota Health, Rome, Italy, 8 - 10 September 2019, pp.139
Olive, which is a member of the Olesea family (Olea europaea L.)
maintains its significance for thousands of years. The most important
producers are Spain, Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Algeria and Morocco.
Natural fermentation is the most common production techniques of
table olives. Microorganisms isolated from olive and brine mostly
include Enterobacteriaceae spp., Clostridium spp., Pseudomonas spp.,
Staphylococcus spp., lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and rarely molds.
During olive fermentation, lactic acid bacteria decrease pH value of
the medium by producing lactic acid, which provides microbiological
quality and safety of the product by preventing growth of spoilage and
pathogen microorganisms. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lb. pentosus
are among lactic acid bacteria that are dominant species in olive
fermentation. Additionally, Lb. brevis, Lb. casei, Lb. coryniformis, Lb. mali,
Lb. paracasei, Lb. paraplantarum, Lb. rhamnosus, Lb. vaccinostercus,
Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leu. pseudomesenteroides, Lactococcus
lactis, Enterococcus casseliflavus, E. italicu, Weissella cibaria, W.
paramesenteroides could take a part in the fermentation, depending on
geographical location, variety of olive and production method. Although,
olive fermentation is carried out by lactic acid bacteria, 4-6 log CFU/mL
yeast population also exist in the media during whole process. Most often
species isolated from different olive varieties include Candida, Pichia,
Saccharomyces and rarely Debaryomyces, Issatchenkia, Zygotorulaspora
and Wickerhamomyces. Previous studies showed that microflora of
fermented olive have probiotic properties. Hence, this product could be
accepted as probiotic foods.