Vitamin D has various systemic effects on bone metabolism, modulation of the immune system, stabilization of the cell membrane, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and various other hormones. Differing from active vitamin D, paricalcitol is a relatively safe VDR agonist due to its relatively few side effects. This study has investigated the anticonvulsant effect of paricalcitol in convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two groups: 18 for EEG recording (PTZ 35 mg/kg) and 18 for behavioral studies (PTZ 70 mg/kg). Forty-five minutes before the PTZ injection, both groups of rats were given 5 and 10 mu g/kg of paricalcitol i.p., respectively. Racine convulsion scores, first myoclonic jerk time, spike percentages, and antioxidant status were evaluated in the groups. Our results showed that the Racine's Convulsion Scale (RCS) score significantly dropped in the paricalcitol-treated group, analysis of the first myoclonic jerk (FMJ) latencies demonstrated a significantly longer latency in the paricalcitol-applied group, and spike percentages at EEG recordings significantly decreased with paricalcitol. Moreover, MDA levels were lower and SOD activity were higher in the 5 mu g/kg paricalcitol group compared to the saline group; these results were more prominent in 10 mu g/kg paricalcitol group. Our study has demonstrated that paricalcitol has protective effects on PTZ-induced convulsions. Based on the SOD and MDA levels in our study, these effects may result from the antioxidant characteristics of paricalcitol.