Energy demand is increasing by the years. Population's needs and technological investments bring the new approach about generating energy. It is considered that fossil fuels will not be able to respond to all energy requirements after approximately 150years. Turkey imports nearly all of its petroleum and so this causes major economic problems. Turkey, as a major cereal producer, has a huge potential to grow energy crops and other cellulosic biomaterials and can obtain plant's residues, which are suitable to produce second generation bioethanol (SGB). With domestic production, bioethanol can reduce the dependence of petroleum for Turkey, and greenhouse gas emissions can be decreased. Taking into account Turkey's situation in fuel-oil consumption, costliness of gasoline and environmentally hazardous specification of fossil fuels, bioethanol gains more importance and increases in value. Especially, SGB production is rising. Foodstuffs are valuable, and producing ethanol from directly those materials can cause a crisis in Turkey because lignocellulosic bioethanol is becoming prominent. In this regard, bioethanol production in Turkey becomes a major alternative to petroleum and may be a key to new and clean energy source. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.