Leaf characteristics and net gas exchange of fig cultigens adapted to different climatic zones


XXVth International Horticultural Congress, Brussels, Belçika, 2 - 07 Ağustos 1998, ss.131-137 identifier


Fig (Ficus carica L.) is a fruit tree known from time immemorial to be well adapted to the rain-fed conditions in the Mediterranean climates, however, varietal responses are so varied that successful production can be sustained only by a suitable variety. The easy propagation of fig through cuttings has led to an unintentional erosion of genetic resources for centuries. Turkey is the major producer of fig and ca 75 % of the fig population is composed of a unique vegetatively propagated variety, Sarilop (=Calimyrna). Despite this fact, Turkey is still one of the rich centers of fig germplasm. To find valuable data related to drought resistance within fig germplasm originating from different climatic zones in Turkey, a study was designed in 1997 at the Fig Research Institute in Aydin. The experiment was designed with 15 year-old fig cultigens originating from different regions but grown under the same soil and climatic conditions in Aydin. The experimental plot composed of Sultani, Halebi and Morozer cultivars from the southeastern part of Turkey, Bursa Black, Sultan Selim and Patlican from the Marmara (north-west) and Sarilop (=Calimyrna), Goklop and Morguz from the Aegean (west) regions. The first leaves located in the axil of the first fruit on the seasonal growth were sampled in August and September 1997. Leaf area, number of stomata, relative water content (turgidity) and succulence index were measured and calculated. Gas exchange properties were determined with a portable photosynthesis system. The investigations proved significant differences between the cultigens and put forward support for parameters which could be used as drought resistance indicators.