The diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs is a very important and problematic public health issue in Turkey. A longitudinal study was carried out on dogs in selected villages in the Cukurova Plain in Turkey, from July 2011 to June 2013, where cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) leishmaniasis is endemic. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of CanL and to evaluate the early diagnostic performance of the non-invasive conjunctival swab nested PCR (CS n-PCR) test in comparison with the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). The consecutive blood and CS samples from a representative number of dogs (80-100 dogs/each survey) were collected in a cohort of 6 villages located in the area. Clinical symptoms, demographic and physical features about each dog were noted and lymph node aspiration samples were obtained from selected dogs with lymphadenopathy.