Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) which is frequently present in Mediterranean populations is caused by mutations in the MEFV gene. According to recent data, MEFV mutations are not the only cause of FMF, but these are major genetic determinants which cause FMF. It has also been suggested that there may be a number of other genes causing FMF. The MEFV gene is located at 16p13.3 and encodes a protein, pyrin/marenostrin. More than 70 disease associated mutations and totally 186 mutations and polymorphisms have been defined in affected individuals. We have retrospectively evaluated the molecular test results of 1,201 patients identified as having FMF clinical symptoms referred to the Molecular Genetics Laboratory of the Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir/Turkey over the last 4 years. Patients were tested for 12 common mutations in the MEFV gene using a strip assay method (Innogenetics, Belgium). Out of the 1,201 patients tested (2,402 chromosomes) in the Aegean region in Turkey, 654 (54.45%) did not carry any mutations, among the 547 (45.55%) patients with mutations 246 patients were either homozygous (101) or compound heterozygous (145), 296 carried only one detected mutation, and five patients had three mutations. Allelic frequencies for the four most common mutations in the mutation positive groups were 47.60% (M694V), 16.75% (E148Q), 12.95% (V726A), 11.94% (M680I G/C).The remaining alleles (10.76%) showed rare mutations which were R761H, P369S, A744S, K695R, F479L, M694I. When the frequencies of mutations detected in our group were compared to the frequencies reported in the other regions of Turkey, an increase in V726A mutation frequency was observed. No patient showed a I692del mutation which is sometimes evident in other Mediterranean populations.