Localization-free and energy-efficient hole bypassing techniques for fault-tolerant sensor networks

Yilmaz O. , DAĞDEVİREN O. , Erciyes K.

JOURNAL OF NETWORK AND COMPUTER APPLICATIONS, cilt.40, ss.164-178, 2014 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 40
  • Basım Tarihi: 2014
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1016/j.jnca.2013.09.002
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.164-178


Nowadays, since wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are increasingly being used in challenged environments such as underground mines, tunnels, oceans and the outer space, fault-tolerance need has become a major requirement for routing protocols. So far, the proposed fault-tolerance methods or algorithms aim to recover the isolated failures which occur at different parts of the network in different times. However, there is another type of failure for WSNs which is more destructive for the applications. By collapsing sensor nodes as a group at the same time, a hole can appear at the network which may cut the data delivery drastically. In the literature, previous studies for bypassing holes are based on localization which may have significant energy and economic costs. In this paper, two localization-free and energy-efficient algorithms are proposed for bypassing the holes formed by group collapse. We realized that when holes are modeled with clusters, hole bypassing can be solved by cluster bypassing. Our algorithms, intra-cluster bypass and inter-cluster bypass, aim to heal the corrupted communication links in the presence of holes. We show the operation of the algorithms, analyze them and provide extensive simulation results in an ns-2 environment. We compare our proposed algorithms with the other approaches and show that our algorithms significantly improve the fault recovery percentages while consuming a reasonable amount of energy even in the presence of high collapse ratio. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.