in: Endocrine Surgery: A South Asian Perspective, Anand Kumar Mishra,Amit Agarwal,Rajeev Parameswaran,Kul Ranjan Singh, Editor, Taylor , Florida, pp.1-8, 2022
Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent endocrine cancer in adults and children. It constitutes 6% of all pediatric cancers. There are significant differences between thyroid cancers observed in children and adults. In children, the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules is higher than in adults, since the thyroid gland is more sensitive to radiation and prone to carcinogenesis. Also, lymph node metastasis and relapse in 10-year follow-up are more common in children when compared to adults. Although advanced disease is not observed in diagnosis, the prognosis of thyroid cancer is much better in children when compared to adults. In addition to clinical characteristics, there are differences in treatment between pediatric and adulthood thyroid cancers. In this section, the diagnosis and treatment approaches in pediatric thyroid cancers are discussed in detail.