Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has recently been shown to be associated with type 2 diabetes. We aim to investigate Turkish type 2 diabetic patients with/without diabetic nephropathy and healthy group and examined the contribution of the G/C exon 2 and T/C exon 6 of the PPARgamma gene polymorphism to the development of diabetic nephropathy. Methods: The PPARgamma genotypes were determined retrospectively in 43 patients with nephropathy and 48 without nephropathy and a control group of 50 healthy individuals. Genotyping of the G/C exon 2 and T/C exon 6 of the PPAR-gamma gene polymorphism for all individuals was performed by melting curve analysis of the generated amplicons after real-time online PCR. Results: This genotype (exon 2 and exon 6) distribution did not differ between control subjects and type 2 diabetic patients. The genotype frequencies and allele exon 2 were CC, 100%; GC, 0%; GG, 0% and C, 100%; G, 0% in diabetic patients with nephropathy versus CC, 97.9%; GC, 2.1 %; GG, 0% and C 98.9%, G 1.1 % in those without nephropathy. Genotype exon 6 frequencies in diabetic patients with nephropathy were (T/T) 0%, (T/C) 14%; (C/C) 86% versus (G/G) 0%; (G/C) 2.1 %; (C/C) 97.9% in those without nephropathy. The PPARgamma exon 2 and exon 6 genotype and allele frequencies were not different between diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. Conclusions: PPARgamma exon 2 and exon 6 gene polymorphism is not associated with the development of diabetic nephropathy in Turkish type 2 diabetic patients. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.