Comparative approaches between organic and conventional production systems allow the revealing of suitable crop management systems and perspectives for genetic improvement in grain crop production. For this purpose, two-year-field experiment with five advanced durum wheat lines was conducted under both organic and conventional conditions during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 growing seasons. Grain yield and yield components (thousand grain weight, spike number per plant and grain number per spike) were determined. Significant positive correlation (r = 0.85**) was found between grain yield of wheat genotypes grown under organic and conventional conditions. Among yield components, a similar correlation (r = 0.74**) was evidenced only in grain number per spike. This suggests that the positive correlation between grain yield of wheat genotypes grown under both conditions is mainly regulated by this yield component. Our finding indicates that any conventional agronomic management which contributes to the increase of grain number per spike, or selected wheat cultivars which have higher value of this parameter may also be advantageous for organic wheat production systems. The critical phenological stage of expression of the character is pointed out, and the practical importance of the finding for facilitating the application of organic systems in durum wheat is underlined.