The aim of this study was to investigate changes in skinfold measurements taken at three sites, mid-arm circumference and umbilical circumference during the first 15 days of life; and to evaluate relationships between anthropometric measurements and umbilical cord blood serum leptin levels in infants born small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Of 50 newborn infants, 25 were SGA and 25 were AGA. Neonates' weight, mid-arm circumference (MAC), umbilical circumference (UC), and triceps, subscapular and periumbilical skinfold thicknesses were measured (Holtain callipers) immediately after delivery. Anthropometric parameters were measured again at 15(th) days of age. At birth, mean birth weight, mean skinfold thickness, MAC and UC measurements in the AGA group were significantly higher than those of the SGA group. These differences were also found on the 15(th) day. Birth weight correlated with all skinfold thicknesses, MAC and UC at birth. Weight at 15(th) day of life correlated with skinfold thicknesses, MAC and UC at 15(th) day of life. Cord blood leptin level was significantly lower in the SGA than in the AGA infants. This difference continued on the 15(th) day. When cord blood leptin level was compared with that of the 15(th) day, we found that leptin levels in the cord blood were significantly higher. There were significantly positive correlations between leptin levels and birth weight and skinfold thicknesses when the infants were all grouped together. When the newborns were grouped according to birth weight, there were positive correlations between cord blood serum leptin levels and these parameters in the AGA group, but no correlation in the SGA group. At the 15(th) day of life serum leptin levels correlated with weight, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness in the AGA group, but only with triceps skinfold thickness in the SGA group.