This paper presents the effect of fuel injection advance on engine performance and exhaust emission parameters using a diesel engine running on canola oil methyl ester (COME). COME was produced and tested at full load with various engine speeds by changing fuel injection advance in a turbocharged direct-injection (TDI) diesel engine with four cycles and four cylinders. According to engine performance test results, maximum brake torque (228.2 N m), brake power (80.3 kW), and thermal efficiency (39.77%) and minimum brake-specific fuel consumption (226.24 g kW(-1) h(-1)) have been obtained for COME on early fuel injection advance (18 degrees crank angle). In addition, early fuel injection advance for O-2 and CO but late fuel injection advance (12 degrees crank angle) for NOx and CO2 must be preferred for decreasing exhaust emissions. Exhaust gas temperatures and smoke density increased by an average of 0.33 and 2.69%, respectively, for early fuel injection advance, and these are increased by an average of 1.48 and 13.66%, respectively, for late fuel injection advance.