It is anticipated that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and anti-oxLDL are associated with atherosclerosis and mortality. However, data on this issue are controversial and limited. We aimed to investigate the effect of these two markers on the extent and progression of atherosclerosis and mortality in a group of hemodialysis patients. In this prospective observational study with a follow-up of 36 months, 124 hemodialysis patients were studied. Ninety-five patients underwent carotid intima media thickness (CA-IMT) measurement by B-Mode ultrasonography both at baseline and at the end of the study. oxLDL and anti-oxLDL were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The extent and progression of CA-IMT, along with overall and cardiovascular mortality, were assessed. The mean age at baseline was 54.0 +/- 14.8 years, 57.3% male and 20% diabetic. The mean oxLDL and anti-oxLDL levels were 8.11 +/- 3.16?mU/L and 1.30 +/- 0.31, respectively. Baseline mean CA-IMT was 0.82 +/- 0.20?mm. Fifteen patients died during a follow-up period of 28.5 +/- 6.6 months, 11 from cardiovascular causes. Only oxLDL, not anti-oxLDL, was correlated with the extent of atherosclerosis at baseline. However, both had no role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Also, in unadjusted and adjusted models, both parameters were not associated with overall or cardiovascular mortality. Neither oxLDL nor anti-oxLDL level is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis or mortality in hemodialysis patients.