Premature Myocardial Infarction: A Rising Threat

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BALKAN MEDICAL JOURNAL, vol.39, no.2, pp.83-95, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2022-2-19
  • Title of Journal : BALKAN MEDICAL JOURNAL
  • Page Numbers: pp.83-95


Myocardial infarction mostly presents with atypical signs and symptoms and has different risk factors in young individuals compared to older individuals. These risk factors are often preventable, therefore recognizing them and taking precautions can save these patients from suffering myocardial infarction. Scarcity of studies and lack of guidelines for assessment and management of young MI patients, make it more challenging for these individuals to get accurate medical care, even though MI in this age group is on the rise. Traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, male sex, obesity, and family history of premature cardiovascular disease, contribute to the risk of myocardial infarction at a young age, but additional non-traditional risk factors, such as substance abuse, thrombophilia, coronary anomalies, immune disease, allergic reactions, and psychological stressors, uniquely contribute to the risk profile of young individuals. This review is aimed to discuss and guide the risk factor assessment for the development of myocardial infarction in young individuals based on current evidence and our >20-year of experience in Young Myocardial Infarction Clinic.