The subject of this study is to explain the human effects and degradation processes on the Aegean coastal zone. The Aegean coastal zone is different from other coastal zones of Turkey because of its geologic structure, geomorphologic evolution and natural environment properties. As a consequence of this, the Aegean Sea and coasts are of great importance to Anatolian civilization history. As is well known, the Aegean coastal zone has been settled since prehistoric ages and is intensively used and settled nowadays. At present, the Aegean coastal zone has also important environmental problems such as salinization of delta soils, pollution of surface and ground water resources and loss of wetlands due to densely agricultural and tourism activities, and heavy urbanization.