Anatoxin-a, a potent neurotoxin, is one of a number of toxins produced by cyanobacteria especially some strains of Anabaena. Toxic cyanobacteria are found worldwide in inland and coastal water environments. The present Study was performed to evaluate the toxicity of anatoxin-a on testes and sperm counts of male mice. The animals of the treatment groups were administered with 50, 100 and 150 mu g/kg/day anatoxin-a for seven consecutive days by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. Although there were no significant changes in body weight gain, and absolute and relative testes weights, absolute and relative weights of cauda epididymis reduced significantly in the 100 and 150 mu g/kg groups when compared with control group. The number of sperm count in cauda epididymis was reduced dose dependently in all treatment groups compared with control animals. Anatoxin-a caused dose-dependent histopathological changes in the testes of mice such as degenerations in seminiferous tubules, intercellular disassociation of spermatogenetic cell lines, sloughing of germ cells into tubular lumen, vacuolisation in Sertoli cells and loss of germ cells. The epithelial thickness of seminiferous tubules decreased significantly in all treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. (C) 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.