Lignocellulosic energy crops are promising feedstocks for producing renewable fuels, such as methane, that can replace diminishing fossil fuels. However, there is a major handicap in using lignocellulosic sources to produce biofuels, which is their low biodegradability. In this study, the application and the optimization of a lignocellulose pretreatment process, named alkaline hydrogen peroxide, was investigated for the enhancement of methane production from the energy crop switchgrass. Four independent process variables, solid content (3-7%), reaction temperature (50-100 degrees C), H2O2 concentration (1-3%), and reaction time (6-24 h), and three response variables, soluble reducing sugar, soluble chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical methane potential were used in process optimization and modeling. The optimization was performed by two different approaches as maximum methane production and cost minimization. The optimum conditions for the highest methane production were found as 6.65 wt% solid content, 50.6 degrees C reaction temperature, 2.94 wt% H2O2 concentration, and 16.05 h reaction time. The conditions providing the lowest cost were 6.43 wt% solid content, 50 degrees C reaction temperature, 1.83 wt% H2O2 concentration, and 6.78 h reaction time. For maximum methane production and cost minimization, specific methane yields of 338.52 mL CH4/g VS and 291.34 mL CH4/g VS were predicted with 62.4 % and 39.8 % enhancements compared to untreated switchgrass, respectively. Finally, it was found that the predicted methane production for the maximum methane production represents 77 % of the theoretical methane yield and 82.22 % energy recovery.