Internal illumination systems are being considered for use as an alternative light supply technique in microalgal products. The main goal of the study was to analyze the roles of different light wavelengths in internally illuminated airlift photobioreactors (PBRs) providing the light energy in an efficient way for the biomass production, lipid yield, and fatty acid composition of Amphora capitellata. The maximum chlorophyll-a concentration per unit biomass (2.62 +/- 0.16 mg L-1) was obtained under red light, which was only 14% higher than under blue light in internally illuminated airlift PBR, whereas low chlorophyll-a content was found under white light. Maximum specific growth rate of 0.317 day(-1), which corresponded to a doubling time of 2.185 days, was obtained under red light for A. capitellata. It was found that lipid content increased with decreasing growth rate for A. capitellata. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) were the principal fatty acids accounting for between 31%-33% and 31%-32% of total fatty acids, respectively. It is important to underline that red and blue light spectrum ranges contribute to improved biomass growth, whereas white light has the potential to support lipid content of diatoms.