Prunus mahaleb L. kernel is defined as spice and used in food industry as flavouring agent. The aim of this study was the optimization of equilibrium time, extraction temperature, and extraction time conditions of HS-SPME for volatile compounds of Prunus mahaleb L. kernel. The optimization was implemented using response surface methodology and central composite design. A total of 21 volatile compounds from terpene, aldehyde, ketone, and alcohol chemical classes were determined in Prunus mahaleb L. kernel. The equilibrium time, extraction temperature, and extraction time had effect on area of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, sabinene, 3-carene, beta-myrcene, alpha-phellandrene, limonene, 1,8-cineole, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, alpha-terpinolene, benzaldehyde, linalool, (E, E)-2,4-nonadienal, d-carvone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone, and benzyl alcohol. Bornylene area was affected only from extraction time. The extraction of beta-thujene, cinnamaldehyde, and coumarin were influenced by extraction temperature and time. The optimum HS-SPME conditions for Prunus mahaleb L. kernel volatiles were determined as 22.15 min equilibrium time, 69.99 degrees C extraction temperature and 51.79 min extraction time. At optimum extraction conditions coumarin was determined as the key volatile compound of Prunus mahaleb L. kernel.