Data on feeding habits in aquatic ecosystems are of great importance in determining the role that a certain fish species plays in its habitat and in related ecosystems. In this study, the diet composition of Mediterranean horse mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus was investigated for 728 specimens from the central Aegean Sea to compare our data with those from other regions of the Mediterranean Sea and throughout all four seasons. Catches from five major groups were identified. Crustaceans (particularly copepods) proved to be the most important food item considering the index of relative importance (IRI). At least 58 different copepod species were identified. Abundant copepod species that occur in every season were Corycaeus sp., Oncaea media, Oncaea spp., Isias clavipes, Euterpina acutifrons and Oithona nana. Isias clavipes occurred only in spring, with all of them appearing in the diet with a %IRI >10. Although found in a relatively smaller quantity, teleost larvae ranked as the second most important prey in the overall diet, with increasing quantities in fish larger than 18.0 cm.